[13]: Ethnic enclaves and metabolic syndrome in Chinese immigrants in Philadelphia

Daisy Rojas†★, Edgardo Hernandez, Marilyn Tseng

Department of Kinesiology and Public Health, Frost Support, Speaker

Introduction. Ethnic enclaves, neighborhoods with high ethnic concentrations, may have a protective effect on their residents' health outcomes, but studies on their associations with cardiometabolic risk in Asian communities are inconsistent. We examined whether ethnic enclave residence was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a longitudinal sample of 516 Chinese immigrant adults in Philadelphia. Methods. Participants were recruited from three types of neighborhoods: established enclaves, emerging enclaves and non-enclave neighborhoods. At baseline (9/18-1/20) and follow-up (8/21-4/22), research staff conducted interviews and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements and collected fasting blood samples for glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein levels. We used logistic regressions estimated by generalized estimating equations to estimate odds ratios (OR) for associations of enclave residence with MetS and its components, and differences in change over time in models stratified on neighborhood type. Results. During an average of 2.6 years of follow-up, the occurrence of overall MetS increased as well as two components - high waist circumference and high triglycerides. Overall, no consistent associations between enclave residence and MetS or MetS components emerged. For example, over time and compared with residents in non-enclaves, residents of established enclaves experienced fewer occurrences of elevated glucose but had more occurrences of elevated blood pressure. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that ethnic enclaves are not 'monolithically beneficial'. A more nuanced understanding of the resources that different kinds of enclaves offer and of how Chinese immigrants interact with these enclave resources is needed to inform and support effective investment in immigrant communities.

[14]: Perceptions towards Endgame Tobacco Control Policies among a Sample of US Adults

Pamela Estrada, Elmer Hernandez Gomez, Jenna Holman, Julia Alber, Adrienne Lent

Department of Kinesiology and Public Health, Speaker

Tobacco continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the US. Endgame tobacco control policies have the potential to decrease disparities in tobacco outcomes. This study examined support for these policies on a Likert scale (1=Strongly oppose to 6=Strongly support) among a sample of US adults (N=506). Results found the highest supported policies to be: 1)requiring tobacco retailing licenses that can be removed if they sell to underage individuals (M=5.00, SD=1.20), 2)banning tobacco products in dining/service areas (M=4.92, SD=1.40), 3)requiring a quitline number be on tobacco products (M=4.67, SD=1.25), and 4)banning tobacco sales within a certain distance of schools (M=4.48, SD=1.53). The lowest supported policies included 1)eliminating all policies that penalize an underaged person for tobacco use (M=2.61, SD=1.48), 2)banning cigarette filters sales (M=3.24, SD=1.63), 3)banning all tobacco products sales (M=3.25, SD=1.73), and 4)requiring retailers to sell minimum pack size for cigars/cigarillos (M=3.28, SD=1.49). Results provide some context on current support for Endgame policies and what may impact support.

[15]: Estimating Infant Intake Using a Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM)

Bhagya Narayanan†★, Alison Ventura

Department of Kinesiology and Public Health, Frost Support, Speaker

Feeding mode (i.e., breastfeeding versus bottle-feeding) during infancy predicts later health outcomes, previous research illustrates bottle-feeding increases risk for rapid weight gain during infancy, and obesity later in life. As feeding mode is modifiable, more research is needed to identify opportunities for prevention. One novel approach to understand bottle-feeding patterns is Remote Food Photography Methods (RFPM), which measures dietary patterns in an accurate and accessible manner. The purpose of this research was to adapt RFPM to digitally measure the amount of milk in a feeding bottle. Research assistants took digital photographs of infant feeding bottles with varying amounts of milk (n=100) and assessed milk weight. Image processing software was used to measure the area of milk in pixels. Actual milk weight was regressed on estimated area of milk and bottle parameters to create an equation to be used to estimate milk weight digitally. The mean difference between RFPM estimated milk weight and actual milk weight was 0.0014 (90% CI, -1.1573, 1.1596), which was equivalent within 5% equivalence bounds via two one sided tests of equivalence (p<.0001). The demonstrated effectiveness of the RFPM provides a foundation for further research to improve assessment of bottle-feeding patterns.

[16]: Snake hydration? Water bout it? Cataloging the cutaneous evaporative water loss of California snakes in the family Colubridae.

Ryan Singer, Brandon Kong, Haley Moniz, Emily Taylor

Department of Biological Sciences, Frost Support, Speaker

Water balance is a major challenge for reptiles living in arid environments. However, our understanding of how snakes in particular experience water-stress is largely insufficient despite continued drought conditions that are forecasted to increase in frequency and duration. Here, we aimed to catalog cutaneous evaporative water loss (CEWL) in non-venomous snake species in California to understand how differing habits and habitats affect snake hydration physiology. We sampled snakes of multiple species in California and used CEWL as a way to measure the animal's resistance to water loss. If distinct species have unique rates of CEWL, we expect aquatic snakes like garter snakes will lose more water through their skin than terrestrial snakes like gopher snakes and kingsnakes because of aquatic snakes' easy access to permanent water. Furthermore, snakes likely have intraspecific differences in their CEWL, where populations within a species that occupy the drier, easterly portion of their California range will lose less water through the skin than populations that live nearer to the coast, often by available water. Results of this work will provide novel insight into the complex hydric physiological ecology that allows snakes to locally adapt to increasing drought conditions.

[17]: The effects of human-caused stimuli on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in Isafjordur

Ella Jorgensen†★, Sandra M. Granquist, Heather E.M. Liwanag

Department of Biological Sciences, Frost Support, Speaker

Harbor seals are important for the health of Iceland's marine ecosystems. Although they are aquatic, they typically haul out on land to rest. There are many factors that affect the haul-out patterns of harbor seals, including location, season, time of day, tide height, weather, and human-caused stimuli. Human-caused stimuli in particular can have a negative impact on haul-out patterns and behaviors. The Icelandic harbor seal population is threatened, as it has been declining since 1980. Climate change and the rise of tourism in Iceland may be a factor contributing to this decline, and there is a gap in knowledge on the full effect of tourism on wildlife because tourism has grown rapidly. Therefore, it is important to monitor Icelandic harbor seal populations. We conducted land-based scans of harbor seals to determine the abundance of harbor seals in a haul-out site in Pollurinn, Isafjordur during autumn, and to understand the effects of human-caused stimuli on haul-out behavior. We found that human-caused stimuli negatively affect the harbor seals in Pollurinn, Isafjordur by altering their behaviors. Hauling out decreased, vigilance increased, and flushing increased in the presence of anthropogenic stimuli including planes, drones, humans, and large trucks, with the greatest impact caused by human presence. These findings are important in the context of Icelandic harbor seal population decline and the rise of tourism, and this information can be used to help conserve Icelandic harbor seals. This is especially significant to Isafjordur, where tourism is very prevalent in the summer.

[18]: Movement of weaned northern elephant seal pups during their first at-sea foraging migration

Katie Saenger1★, Molly Murphy1, Heather Harris2, Lauren Campbell2, Elizabeth Eby2, Kate Riordan1, Rhys Evans3, Tim Bean1, Gita Kolluru1, Heather Liwanag1

1 Department of Biological Sciences, 2 The Marine Mammal Center, 3 Vandenberg Space Force Base, Speaker

The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris, NES) is a well-studied marine mammal known for engaging in long foraging migrations at sea. Adult male NES follow pathways along the coast towards Alaska and adult female NES follow pathways to open ocean. However, there is little to no information about newly weaned NES pup foraging behavior. This lack of knowledge is significant because NES have a mortality rate of >50% in the first year. This project aims to better understand the migratory pathways of NES during this critical life stage. We deployed satellite tags on newly weaned NES pups at Vandenberg Space Force Base (VSFB, est. 2016, n=15) and San Nicolas Island (SNI, est. 1949, n=10). We hypothesized that weaned NES pups would [1] prioritize near-site foraging areas and thus migrate shorter distances compared to adults, [2] exhibit no sexual divergence in their pathways, and [3] have pathways that differ between the two breeding sites. Preliminary results show weaned pups migrating shorter distances than adults and primarily utilizing areas along the coast. Additionally, weaned pups do not display the same sexual divergence seen in adult migratory pathways, but there are differences in weaned pup home ranges between sexes and rookeries. Examining these migratory pathways and comparing them between rookeries and years provides insight into important foraging grounds for this life stage, differences between breeding sites, and environmental influences on migration, which will inform the conservation and management of this species.